THE THEOPHANY AND HOLY BAPTISM IN THE WORDS OF THE HOLY FATHERS

Baptism of Christ

PREFIGURATIONS OF BAPTISM IN THE OLD TESTAMENT

Blessed Jerome says that “the Spirit of God above moved ... over the face of the waters [Gen. 1:2], and produced from them the infant world, a type of the Christian child that is drawn from the laver of Baptism.”1 He also observes, “When the world falls into sin, nothing but a flood of waters can cleanse it again. But as soon as the foul bird of wickedness is driven away, the dove of the Holy Spirit comes to Noah [Gen. 8:8,11 ], as it came afterwards to Christ in the Jordan [Mt. 3:16], carrying in its beak a branch betokening restoration and light, and bringing tidings of peace to the whole world.”2

According to St. Jacob of Serugh, when Patriarch Jacob reached the well where Rachel watered her flocks, a great weight lie across it, which could scarce be removed by many men. Yet Jacob, a type of Christ, opened the baptismal font for His betrothed, that she might bathe there. He (Christ) lifted up the weight of sins by His mighty strength. He revealed a spring that gave a sweet draught to all the world. The fair sight of her so multiplied his strength that he was able to roll away the stone that was too heavy for many men [Gen. 29:10]. The mystery of the Church lay on her face like a jewel. All the flocks drank there for Rachel’s sake, who was the cause thereof by her grace, her love, her beauty.”3

In the exodus, Saint Ambrose tells us, “Holy Baptism was prefigured in that passage of the Hebrews, wherein the Egyptian perished and the Hebrew escaped. For what else are we daily taught in this sacrament, but that guilt is swallowed up and error done away, but that virtue and innocence remain unharmed?”4

In the life of Prophet Eliseos he healed the barren waters with salt [4 Kgs. 2:19-22], which prefigured the fruitfulness that the august font should bring forth mystically.5 And he sweetened the waters by means of salt, manifestly proclaiming the grace of Baptism 6 Saint Kosmas says, Jordan received into its deep bosom a sharp axe, and then was forced by a stick of wood to give it back again [4 Kgs. 6:1-7], thus betokening the cutting of error by the Cross and Baptism.7 At the Prophet’s behest, the Syrian leper Naaman washed seven times in the Jordan, and was cleansed [4 Kgs. 5:14].

Saint Cyril of Jerusalem, speaking of the true circumcision spoken of by Prophet Jeremias, says “By the likeness of our faith ...we become the adopted sons of Abraham; and consequent upon our faith, like him we receive the spiritual seal, being circumcised by the Holy Spirit through the laver of Baptism, not in the foreskin of the body, but in the heart, according to the words of Jeremias: Circumcise yourselves to God, and circumcise your hardness of heart [Jer. 4:4], and according to the Apostle: In Whom also ye are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh by the circumcision of Christ: Buried with Him in baptism, wherein also ye are risen with Him through the faith of the operation of God, Who hath raised Him from the dead [Col. 2: 11,12].”8

Saint Basil the Great interprets the triple immersion of the baptismal rite by the three days of Christ’s burial in accordance with the sign of Jonas.9 Saint John of Damascus regards the Prophet Jonas’ three nights in the belly of the sea monster and his coming forth again as a manifestation beforehand to all of our regeneration by the washing [Titus 3:5] and our deliverance from the dragon that slays mankind.”10

Saint Gregory of Nyssa remarks that “most manifestly does Zacharias prophesy of Jesus [Zach. 3:4], who was clothed with the filthy garment (to wit, the flesh of a servant, even ours), and stripping him of his ill-favored raiment adorns him with the clean and fair apparel. He teaches us by the figurative illustration that verily in the Baptism of Jesus all we, putting off our sins like some poor and patched garment, are clothed in the holy and most fair garment of regeneration.”11

The Baptism of Christ, detail [Jn. 1:29-34]. Manuel Panselinos (c. 1290). Protaton, Athos.

SAINT JOHN THE BAPTIST’S LIFE AND MINISTRY

Saint Ephraim says that “the daughter (Elisabeth) of Aaron the priest gave birth to the voice in the desert [Is. 40:3; Mt. 3:3], and the daughter (Mary) of King David to the Word of the heavenly King.”12 The hymnographers of the Church proclaim John as that “voice.” See Elisabeth speaking to the Virgin Mary, Whence is the Mother of my Lord come to me? [Lk. 1:43]. “Thou dost carry the King and I the soldier; thou the Law Giver and I the enactor of the Law; thou the Word, and I the voice proclaiming the Kingdom of heaven” [Is. 40:3].13 Saint Cyril of Jerusalem observes: “John (the Baptist) alone while carried in the womb leaped for joy [Lk. 1:44], and though he saw not with the eyes of the flesh, knew his Master by the Spirit: for since the grace of Baptism was great, it required greatness in its founder also.”14 Saint Ephraim writes: “He who was to baptize with water would proclaim Him Who would baptize in fire and in the Holy Spirit [cf. Mt. 3:1]....”15 Saint Kosmas the Melodist, referring to the prophecy of Esaïas, chants He whom Thou hast called, O Lord, “The voice of one crying in the wilderness,” heard Thy voice when Thou hast thundered upon many waters, bearing witness to Thy Son.16 Prophet Esaïas also said, Be glad, thou thirty desert: let the wilderness exult, and flower as the lily. And the desert places of Jordan shall blossom and rejoice [Is. 35:1,2]. And, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, “Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight the paths of our God.”...And the glory of the Lord shall appear, and all flesh shall see the salvation of God, for the Lord hath spoken it [Is. 40:2].

Saint Cyril of Alexandria says, “The blessed Esaïas knew the work of the Forerunner in proclaiming Christ, and styled John His minister and servant, and said that he was a lamp advancing before the true Light, the morning star heralding the Sun. He foreshadowed the coming of the day that was about to shed its rays upon us; and that he was a voice, not a word, forerunning Jesus, as the voice does the word.”17

Saint John Chrysostom writes of the Forerunner’s life and ministry: “Conceive, for example, how great a thing it was to see a man after thirty years coming down from the wilderness, being the son of a chief priest [Lk. 1:3], who had never known the common wants of men, and was on every account venerable, and had Esaïas with him ....For so great was the earnestness of the Prophets touching these things, that not their own Lord only, but him also who was to minister unto Him, they proclaimed a long time beforehand. And they not only mentioned him, but the place too in which he was to abide, and the manner of the doctrine which he had to teach when he came, and the good effect that was produced by him.”18

Saint Cyril of Alexandria also praises him, saying, “The blessed Baptist was entirely devoted to piety unto Christ; nor was there in him the slightest regard either for fleshly lusts or for the things of this world. Having altogether abandoned, therefore, the vain and unprofitable distractions of this world, he labored at that one and very urgent task of blamelessly fulfilling the ministry entrusted to him.”19

Saint John Chrysostom speaks of the Baptist’s single-mindedness: “See, at least, how both the Prophet and the Baptist go upon the same ideas, although not upon the same words. Thus the Prophet saith that he shall come saying, ‘Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight the paths of our God’ [Is. 40:3]. And he himself when he was come said, ‘Bring forth fruits meet for repentance’ [cf. Mt. 3:8], which corresponds with, ‘Prepare ye the way of the Lord.’ Seest thou that both by the words of the Prophet, and by his own preaching, this one thing is manifested alone: that he came making a way and preparing beforehand, not bestowing the gift, which was the remission, but ordering in good time the souls of such as should receive the God of all?”20

His humility is lauded by St. Chrysostom, “The character and heavenly wisdom of the witness showed that his testimony proceeded, not from flattery, but from truth; which is plain also from this, that no man prefers his neighbor to himself, nor, when he may lawfully give honor to himself, will yield it up to another, especially when it is so great as that of which we speak.”21

What is the mystical significance of the sandal, when the Baptist says, I am not fit to loose the strap of His sandals [Lk. 3:16]? Saint Bede the Venerable explains: “If we are attentive to the mystical meaning, this is clearly a reference to a decree of the Law, for one who did not wish himself to receive a wife due to him by the rule of next of kin, but wished instead to permit another to receive her, was ordered to give his sandal, undone from his foot, to the one who would receive her, as a sign of his permission in this regard [Deut. 25:5-9; Ruth 4:7]. And because the people believed, as a result of his virtues, that John was the Christ, they surely believed that he was the Bridegroom of the Church [Eph. 5:21-32]. But in order to show who he was, John himself said, ‘He who has the bride is the bridegroom, but the friend of the bridegroom, who stands and listens to him, rejoices with joy on account of the bridegroom’s voice’ [Jn. 3:29]. And so he did not allow them to believe that he was the Bridegroom, lest he lose the Bridegroom’s friendship, which is the meaning of his bearing witness that it was not befitting that he should undo Christ’s sandals.”

Saint Ambrose confirms this, saying, “Moses was not the Bridegroom [Ex. 3:5]...nor Jesus of Navee [Josh. 5:16]....

None other is the Bridegroom but Christ alone, of Whom John spoke [Jn. 3:29]. They, therefore, loose their sandals, but His sandal cannot be loosed, even as St. John said, “I am not worthy to loose the latchet of His sandal [cf. Jn. 1:27].”22

THE BAPTISM OF JOHN

Saint Chrysostom says that Christ’s “Baptism partook of the old, and it partook also of the new. To be baptized by the Prophet marked the old, but the coming down of the Spirit foreshadowed the new ....He hath joined the old covenant with the new, God’s nature with man’s, the things that are His with ours. Wherefore the birth was twofold, both made like unto us, and also surpassing ours. For to be born of a woman indeed was our lot, but to be born not of blood, nor of the will of flesh, nor of the will of man [cf. Jn. 1:13], but of the Holy Spirit, was to proclaim beforehand the birth surpassing us, the birth to come, which He was about freely to give us of the Spirit.”23

Saint Chrysostom remarks upon the Baptist’s response to those sent by the Pharisees who asked: “‘Art thou Elias?... Who art thou? ...What sayest thou about thyself?’ [Jn. 1:21,22]. The holy Baptist answered, ‘I am a voice crying in the wilderness, “Make straight the way of the Lord,” even as the Prophet Esaias said’ [Is. 40:3; Jn. 1:23]; and, ‘I baptize with water; but One standeth in your midst, Whom ye know not. He it is Who, coming after me, hath come to be before me, of Whom I am not worthy that I should loose the thong of His sandal’ [Jn. 1:26,27]. John informed them who he was, and spoke of the nature of his own baptism, that it was but a slight and mean thing, nothing more than some water, and told of the superiority of the Baptism given by Christ.”24

Blessed Jerome says, “Those who have received only John’s baptism and have no knowledge of the Holy Spirit are baptized again, lest any should suppose that water unsanctified thereby could suffice for the salvation of either Jew or Gentile.” If they who received the baptism of the Forerunner need holy Baptism, how much more those who are baptized outside of the Church?

AT THE BAPTISM OF CHRIST

The descent into Jordan was a patent manifestation of our Lord in the flesh, and we cry aloud with the Psalmist David, Blessed is he that comes in the name of the Lord: we have blessed you out of the house of the Lord. God is the Lord, and he has shined upon us [Ps. 117:26,27]. This Theophany is fulfilled in the prophecy of Prophet Baruch, This is our God, and there shall none other be accounted of in comparison of Him ....Afterward did He show Himself upon earth, and conversed with men [Bar. 3:35-37]. Thus, we chant, The Godhead was seen with flesh by those of the earth [cf. Bar. 3:37; Tit. 2:11].25 Saint Hippolytos comments that “Christ came down as the rain [Hos. 6:4], and was known as a spring [Jn. 4:14], and diffused Himself as a river [Jn. 7:38], and was baptized in the Jordan [Mt. 3:13].”26

At our Lord’s Baptism the heavens were opened. Prophet-King David prophesied, There was an abundant sound of waters: the clouds uttered a voice [Ps. 76:17]. “Wherefore,” asks St. John Chrysostom, “were the heavens opened? To inform thee that at thy baptism also this is done, God calling thee to thy country on high, and persuading thee to have nothing to do with earth. And if you see it not, yet never doubt it ....Though no visible signs take place, nevertheless, we receive the things that were once made manifest (at our Lord’s Baptism) ....This is also to teach thee that upon thee no less at thy baptism the Spirit comes.”27

Saint John of Damascus at the Theophany chants, The Father in a voice full of joy made manifest His Beloved Whom He had begotten from the womb [Ps. 109: 3]. “Verily,” said He, “He is begotten of Me, and of the same nature as Myself.’ Bearing light, He has come forth from mankind, My living Word, in divine providence made a mortal man.”28

In the Old Testament, the Lord carried back the sea with a strong wind, and the water was divided for Moses [Ex. 14:21 ]. In the time of Jesus of Navee, when the priests bore the ark of the covenant, as soon as they entered a part of the Jordan River during that season when its banks overflowed, the water that came down from above stopped and stood in one solid heap [Josh. 3:15,16]. Prophet Elias took his mantle, and wrapped it together, and smote the water, and it was divided on this side and on that, and both he and Eliseos went over on dry ground [4 Kgs. 2:8]. After the translation of Prophet Elias, Prophet Eliseos stood upon the brink of Jordan, and smote the water, and they were divided hither and thither, and he went over [4 Kgs. 2:13, 14].

Also at our Lord’s Baptism the streams of Jordan were turned back, as Prophet-King David prophesied: The waters saw thee, O God, the waters saw thee, and feared; and the depths were troubled [Ps. 76:15]. The sea saw and fled: Jordan was turned back [Ps. 113:3]. The earth trembled at the presence of the Lord, at the presence of the God of Jacob [Ps. 113:7].

At the Lity service of the Theophany, we chant, How could Jordan that stood in awe of Jesus the son of Navee, not be afraid before the Maker of him? Saint John of Damascus confirms that when Jordan parted in two for the people of Israel, it prefigured the Lord Who would bear the creation down into the stream, bringing it to a better and changeless path.29 When the waters parted and became a dry path for Eliseos, this formed a true figure of the Baptism whereby we pass over the changeful course of life.” Jordan is personified when it is asked during the Theophany Hours, Why dost thou turn back thy streams, O Jordan? Why dost thou not proceed upon thy natural course? “I cannot bear,” said he, “the Fire that consumes me. I am filled with wonder and with dread before His extreme condescension. For I am not used to wash him that is clean: I have not learnt to bathe the sinless, but to purge filthy vessels. Christ Who is baptized in me teaches me to burn the thorns ofsin.31

The Prophet David announced in the Spirit that Thou shalt cause them to drink of the full stream of thy delights [Ps. 35:8]. At the Theophany this Torrent is identified. The Torrent of delights is baptized in the stream: He dries up the fount of evil and pours forth divine remission.32 And The Master, as the Torrent of Thy delights, cometh forth to be baptized in the streams of the river; for He desired giving me to drink and cleansing me with the flowing spring water.33 Prophet Michaeas also wrote: He will return and have mercy upon us; He will sink our iniquities, and they shall be cast into the depths of the sea, even all our sins [Mic. 7:19].34

Saint Cosmas affirms that our Lord’s Baptism in the Jordan broke to pieces the heads of the dragons in the water [Ps. 73:13].35 John the Monk at the Theophany service also mentions that at Christ’s descent into the waters, He gave light to all things and crushed the heads of the dragons.36 Blessed Jerome writes: “Pharaoh and his host, loathe to allow God’s people to leave Egypt, were overwhelmed in the Red Sea figuring thereby our baptism. His destruction is described in the book of Psalms [73:13,14].37 Saint John of Damascus chants for the Theophany, From the ancient snares have we all been set loose, and the jaws of the devouring lions have been broken,38 as prophesied by David, God has crushed their teeth in their mouth: God has broken the cheek-teeth of the lions [Ps. 57:6].

The Baptism of Christ [Lk. 3:21, 22]. Stavronikita, Athos. Panel icon.

THE PURPOSE OF THE THEOPHANY AND BAPTISM

Saint Cosmas, Bishop of Maiuma tells us that our Lord, Who clothed material flesh with the immaterial fire of His divinity, formed Adam anew, who fell into corruption, in the streams of the Jordan.39 David prophesied, Draw near to him, and be enlightened: and your faces shall not by any means be ashamed. This poor man cried, and the Lord hearkened to him, and delivered him out of all his afflictions [Ps. 33:5,6]. Saint Cosmas the Melodist chants, Fallen Adam, the poor man, cried, and the Lord heard him: He has come and in the streams of Jordan He has made him new again, who was sunk in corruption.”40

Speaking eloquently upon Christian Baptism, St. Justin Martyr says, “As for this rite we have learned from the Apostles this reason. Since at our birth we were born without our own knowledge or choice, by our parents coming together, and were brought up in bad habits and wicked training, in order that we may not remain the children of necessity and of ignorance, but may become the children of choice and knowledge, and obtain in the water the remission of sins formerly committed, there is pronounced over him who chooses to be born again, and has repented of his sins, the name of God the Father and Lord of the universe .... And this washing is called Illumination, because they ... are illuminated in their understandings. And in the name of Jesus Christ, Who was crucified under Pontius Pilate, and in the name of the Holy Spirit, Who through the Prophets foretold all things about Jesus, he who is illuminated is washed.”41

Saint Athanasios says, “He deified that which He put on, and gave it graciously to the race of man.”42 When we read, And for their sakes do I sanctify Myself, that they also may be sanctified in truth [Jn. 17:18,19], and Now God anointed Him with the Holy Spirit [cf. Acts 10:38], He Who sanctifies Himself is the Lord of sanctification. “If then for our sake He sanctifies Himself, and does this when He is become Man, it is very plain that the Spirit’s descent on Him in Jordan was a descent upon us, because of His bearing our body. For when the Lord, as Man, was washed in Jordan, it was we who were washed in Him and by Him. And when He received the Spirit, it was we who by Him were made recipients of the Spirit.”43

Moreover, “Jesus sanctified baptism when He Himself was baptized,” says Saint Cyril of Jerusalem. “If the Son of God was baptized, can anyone who scorns Baptism pretend to piety? Not that He was baptized to receive the remission of sin-for He was without sin-but being sinless, He was nevertheless baptized, that He might impart grace and dignity to those who receive the Mystery.”44

Saint Gregory of Nyssa explains the words of Esaias, Be glad, O thirsty wilderness: let the desert rejoice and blossom as a lily: and the desolate places of Jordan shall blossom and shall rejoice [Is. 35:1,2]. “It is clear that it is not to places without soul or sense that he proclaims the good tidings of joy: but he speaks by the figure of the desert, of the soul that is parched and unadorned, even as David also, when he says, ‘My soul thirsts for thee, as a dry land’ [cf. Ps. 142:6], and, ‘My soul earnestly longs for thee, O God. My soul has thirsted for the living God’ [cf. Ps. 41:1-2]. So again the Lord says in the Gospel, ‘If any man thirst, let him come unto Me, and drink’ [Jn. 7:37]; and to the woman of Samaria, ‘Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again: but whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst’ [Jn. 4:13,14].”45

Saint Leo the Great, Pope of Rome, writes of our rebirth: “The Word became flesh by exaltation of the flesh, not by failure of the Godhead: which so tempered its power and goodness as to exalt our nature by taking it, and not to lose His own by imparting it.... For the earth of human flesh, which in the first transgressor, was cursed, in this Offspring of the Blessed Virgin only produced a seed that was blessed and free from the fault of its stock. And each one is a partaker of this spiritual origin in regeneration; and to every one when he is re-born, the water of Baptism is like the Virgin’s womb; for the same Holy Spirit fills the font, Who filled the Virgin.”46

Saint John Chrysostom tells of the prodigious renewal in the baptismal font: “All the fabric of our nature is framed above, of the Holy Spirit and water. The water is employed, being made the birth to him who is born. What the womb is to the embryo, the water is to the believer; for in the water he is fashioned and formed.”47

Saint Ephraim the Syrian writes: “Within the womb is the conception of all men; but here, out of the water, is the birth whereof the spiritual are worthy.”48

THE FRUITS OF HOLY BAPTISM

The fruits of holy Baptism are manifold, according to both the Prophets and the holy Fathers. Saint Hippolytos speaks of the purifying power of Baptism, saying, “He who comes down in faith to the laver of regeneration, and renounces the devil, and joins himself to Christ, and denies the enemy, and makes the confession that Christ is God, and puts off the bondage, and puts on the adoption, -he comes up from the Baptism brilliant as the sun, flashing forth the beams of righteousness, and, which is indeed, the chief thing, he returns a son of God and a joint heir of Christ.”49 Saint Cyril of Jerusalem writes: “Great is the prize set before you in Baptism: ransom for captives, remission of sins, death of sin, a new spiritual birth, a shining garment, a holy seal inviolable, a heaven bound chariot, delights of Paradise, a passport to the Kingdom, the grace of the adoption of sons.”50

IS THERE HOLY BAPTISM OUTSIDE OF THE CHURCH?

Prophet Jeremias wrote: ’Why do they that grieve me prevail against me? My wound is severe; whence shall I be healed? It is indeed become to me as deceitful water, that has no faithfulness (as to healing)’ [Jer. 15:18]. “What is this deceitful and faithless water?” asks St. Cyprian. “Certainly that which falsely assumes the resemblance of Baptism, and frustrates the grace of faith by a shadowy pretence. But if, according to a perverted faith, one could be baptized outside and obtain remission of sins, according to the same faith, he could also attain the Holy Spirit; and there is no need that hands should be laid on him when he comes, that he might obtain the Holy Spirit and be sealed. Either he could obtain both privileges without by his faith, or he who has been outside has received neither.”51 In an epistle to the bishops, St. Cyprian states, “For certain no one can be baptized abroad outside the Church, since there is one Baptism appointed in the holy Church. And it is written: They have hewn out for themselves broken cisterns, which will not be able to hold water [Jer. 2:13]. And again, sacred Scripture warns, and says, Do thou abstain from strange water, and drink not of a strange fountain [Prov. 9:18]. It is required, then, that the water should first be cleansed and sanctified by the priest (bishop), that it may wash away by Baptism the sins of the one who is baptized; because the Lord says by Prophet Ezekiel: I will sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be purged from all our uncleannesses and from all your idols, and I will cleanse you. And I will give you a new heart, and will put a new spirit in you [Ez. 36:25,26]. But how can he cleanse and sanctify the water who is himself unclean, and in whom the Holy Spirit is not? The Lord says, Whatsoever the unclean man shall touch shall be unclean, and the soul that touches it shall be unclean till evening [Num. 19:22]. Or how can he who baptizes give to another remission of sins, who himself, being outside the Church, cannot put away his own sins?”52

“Furthermore, one is not born by the imposition of hands when he received the Holy Spirit, but in Baptism, that so, being already born, he may receive the Holy Spirit, even as it happened in the first Adam. For first God formed him, and then breathed into his nostrils the breath of life. For the Spirit cannot be received, unless he who receives, should first have an existence. As the birth of Christians is in Baptism, while the generation and sanctification of Baptism are with the Spouse of Christ alone, who is able spiritually to conceive and to bear sons to God, where and of whom and to whom is he born, who is not a son of the Church, so as that he should have God as his Father, before he has had the Church for his Mother?”53

Saint Athanasios warns, “There are many other heresies too, which use the words only, but not in a right sense,...nor with sound Faith, and in consequence the water which they administer is unprofitable, as deficient in piety, so that he who is sprinkled by them is rather polluted by the irreligious than redeemed.”54 Saint Ambrose concurs, “The baptism of unbelievers does not heal, does not cleanse, but pollutes.”55

Baptism must also be performed in the proper manner by the priest. Canon 50 of the holy Apostles requires triple immersion as the proper form of Baptism. This is the tradition that has been handed down to us. Saint Basil says, “Whether a man have departed this life without baptism, or have received a baptism lacking in some of the requirements of the tradition, his loss is equal .”56

Canon 46 of the Holy Apostles clearly states: “We order any bishop, or presbyter, that has accepted any heretics’ baptism or sacrifice, to be deposed; for what consonance bath Christ with Beliar? Or what portion bath a believer with an infidel? [2 Cor. 6:14.] The early document of The Didache cautions, “Let no one eat and drink of your Eucharist, but those baptized in the name of the Lord.”57 Saint Hippolytos also cautions, “Let all take care that no unbaptized person taste of the Eucharist ....”58

“But,” hypothesizes St. Cyprian, “what if someone should say, ‘What then shall become of those who in past times, coming from heresy to the Church, were received without Baptism?’ The Lord is able by His mercy to give indulgence, and not to separate from the gifts of His Church those who by simplicity were admitted into the Church, and in the Church have fallen asleep. Nevertheless, it does not follow that, because there was error at one time, there must always be error; since it is more fitting for wise and God-fearing men, gladly and without delay to obey the truth when laid open and perceived, than pertinaciously and obstinately to struggle against brethren and fellow-priests on behalf of heretics.”59

Saint John Chrysostom leaves this warning to the bishops: “I do not think there are many bishops that shall be saved, but many more that perish ....Do you not see what a number of qualifications a bishop must have? [c£ 1 Tim. 3:2-9; Tit. 1:7-9]. What troubles and pains does this require! And when others do wrong, he bears all the blame. To pass over everything else: If one soul departs unbaptized, does not this subvert all his own prospect of salvation? The loss of one soul carries with it a penalty which no language can represent.”60

End Notes:

1. Saint Jerome, “Letter LXIX,” Vol. VI, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, p. 145. 2. lb.

3. Mar Jacob, Bishop of Serugh, “A Homily on our Lord and Jacob, on the Church and Rachel, and on Leah and the Synagogue,” The True Vine, vol. 4, no. 4 (1993), pp. 51-64.

4. “On the Mysteries,” Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. X, 2nd Ser. Ch. III, p. 318. 5. January 5th, extract of Matins Canon, Ode Seven, Tone One.

6. June 14th, Matins Ikos.

7. September 14th, Exaltation of the Cross, Matins Canon, Ode Four, Tone Plagal Four. 8. “Catechesis V,” Fathers of the Church, Vol. 61, pp. 142, 143.

9. “On the Spirit,” Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. VIII, pp. 14, 32. 10. Theophany, Matins Canon, Ode Six, Tone Two.

11. “On the Baptism of Christ,” Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. V, Bk. VI, pp. 522-3.

12. Saint Ephrem’s Commentary on Tatian’s Diatessaron, Jour. Semitic Studies Supp. 2, 58. 13. June 24th, Nativity of St. John the Baptist, Vespers Theotokion, Tone Plagal Four. 14. Catechetical Lectures, Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. VII, Lecture III, p. 16. 15. Saint Ephrem’s Commentary on Tatian’s Diatessaron, p. 58.

16. Theophany, Matins Canon, Ode Four, Tone Two.

17. “Homily 6,” Commentary on the Gospel of St. Luke, Studion Publishers, 1983, p. 69. 18. “Homily XVI on St. John,” Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. X, pp. 56, 57.

19. “Homily 39,” Commentary on the Gospel of Saint Luke, p. 166.

20. “Homily X on the Gospel of Matthew,” Nicene & Post-Nicene, 1st Set. Vol. X, p. 63.

21. “Homily XVI on the Gospel of St. John,” pp. 56, 57.

22. “Of the Christian Faith,” Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, Bk. III, p. 253.

23. “Homily II on the Gospel of Matthew,” pp. 9, 10.

24. “Homily XVI on the Gospel of St. John,” pp. 56, 57.

25. January 5th, Theophany, Matins Aposticha, Tone Two.

26. “The Discourse on the Holy Theophany,” Fathers of the Third Century, The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. V, pp. 234, 235.

27. “Homily XII on the Gospel of Matthew,” p. 77.

28. Matins Canon, Ode Six, Tone Two.

29. Theophany, Matins Canon, Ode Seven, Tone Two.

30. Apolytikion of the Forefeast, January 5th, Tone Four.

31. Extract, Theophany, Sixth Hour, Tone Plagal One.

32. January 5th, Vespers Aposticha, Tone Plagal Second.

33. January 5th, extract of Matins Sessional Hymn, Tone One.

34. “Letter LXIX, to Oceanus,” Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. VI, p. 146.

35. Theophany, Matins Canon, Ode One, Tone Two.

36. Theophany Vespers, Tone Two. ‘37. “Letter LXIX,” Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, p. 145.

38. Matins Canon, Ode Three, Tone Two.

39. Theophany, Matins Canon, Ode One, Tone Two.

40. Theophany, Matins Canon, Ode Nine, Tone Two.

41. “First Apology of Justin,” Ante-Nicene Fathers, Apostolic Fathers, Vol. I, LXI, p. 183.

42. “Discourse Against the Arians,” Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. IV, I:XI,

43. lb., I:XII:47.

44. “Catechesis,” The Fathers of the Church, p. 115.

45. “On the Baptism of Christ,” Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. V, p. 523.

46. “Select Letters and Sermons,” Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. XII.

47. “Homily XXVI on the Gospel of St. John,” p. 90.

48. “Hymns for the Feast of the Epiphany,” Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers, Vol. XIII, p. 277.

49. The Extant Works and Fragments of Hippolytus, Vol. 5, p. 237.

50. “Procatechesis,” Catechesis, Vol. 1, Fathers of the Church, vol. 61, p. 82.

51. “Epistle LXXII,” Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. V, p. 381.

52. C£ “Epistle LXIX,” Ante-Nicene Fathers, pp. 375, 376; and, “Letter 70,” Fathers of the Church, Vol. 51, p. 259.

53. “Epistle LXXIII,” p. 387.

54. “Discourses Against the Arians,” ILXVI1.43.

55. “The Mysteries,” Fathers of the Church, Vol. 44, p. 13.

56. “On the Spirit,” Chap. XII, p. 18.

57. “The Didache, Teaching of the Twelve Apostles,” Ancient Christian Writers, p. 20.

58. “Treatise on the Apostolic Tradition,” G. Dix, ed., Morehouse Pub., p. 59.

59. “Epistle LXX,” p. 385.

60. “Homily III on Acts,” Nicene & Post-Nicene, 1st Set., Vol. XI, p. 23.

From The Voice of Orthodoxy, Volume 1, Number 1, Issue Number 1, January-February 1997; Copyright 1997, The Voice of Orthodoxy in America, P.O. Box 3177, Buena Vista, CO 81211, all rights reserved unless otherwise noted. No part of this periodical may be reproduced in any form without written permission in writing from the publisher.

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